Tunisia

Overview

Constitutional document in force:

 

- Constitutional e-Forum -

Welcome to the Tunisia Constitutional e-Forum.

Tunisia, the birthplace of the 2011 Middle East Revolutions, is in the midst of a profound period of change. To follow the historic transition and process of constitutional reform, international and Tunisian experts, academics and researchers have contributed articles, videos, audio podcasts and powerpoint presentations to the e-Forum. Click on the images below to view contributions and to add your comments. For the Twitter users among you, it is easy to share this e-Forum with your followers, who may be interested in the information too – simply click here.

The program can be accessed here:

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Prof. Chibli Mallat

Opening Address

A welcome and a thank you to our presenters and to our participants. Right to Nonviolence will be continuing its assessment of the Tunisian constitutional process with future visits and discussions taking place in Tunisia.

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Chibli Mallat, Chairman and Founder, Right to Nonviolence

Professor Chibli Mallat is Chairman and Founder of Right to Nonviolence. He is a law professor and a practicing attorney, and an active advocate of human rights, constitutional law, and judicial accountability. He is Presidential Professor of Law at the University of Utah and EU Jean Monnet Professor of European Law at Université Saint Joseph in Lebanon. He was the 2011 Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Visiting Professor of Islamic Legal Studies at Harvard Law School, and will be Visiting Professor at Yale Law School in the fall of 2012 teaching war and human rights, and Islamic and Middle Eastern law. Mallat has published and edited over thirty-five books, including Introduction to Middle Eastern Law, OUP 2007; and Iraq: Guide to Law and Policy, Kluwer 2009.

Full CV

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Prof. Noah Feldman

The Risks of Semi-Presidentialism in Emerging Democracies (with Mr. Duncan Pickard)

The issue of the division of power is the most fundamental unresolved question in the draft constitution. This paper discusses why a semi-presidential system is not suited to Tunisia.

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Noah Feldman, Professor of International Law, Harvard University

Noah Feldman is the Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard University as well as a Senior Fellow of the Society of Fellows. He is a contributing writer for the New York Times Magazine and the Bloomberg View as well as a Senior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University. In 2003 he served as senior constitutional advisor to the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq, and subsequently advised members of the Iraqi Governing Council on the drafting of the Transitional Administrative Law or interim constitution. He served as a law clerk to Justice David H. Souter of the U.S. Supreme Court (1998 – 1999). He received his A.B. summa cum laude in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations from Harvard University in 1992, finishing first in his class. Selected as a Rhodes Scholar, he earned a D. Phil. in Islamic Thought from Oxford University and a J.D. from Yale Law School, serving as Book Reviews Editor  of the Yale Law Journal. He is the author of five books: the recent award winning and acclaimed Scorpions: The Battles and Triumphs of FDR’s Great Justices (Twelve, 2010). The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State (Princeton University Press, 2008); Divided by God: America’s Church- State Problem and What We Should Do About It (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005); What We Owe Iraq: War and Ethics of Nation Building (Princeton University Press, 2004); After Jihad: America and the Struggle for Islamic Democracy (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2003).

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Prof. Nathan Brown

Islam and Constitutionalism in the Arab World

This audio podcast discusses the relationship between Islam and Constitutionalism since the mid-nineteenth century. It highlights how this relationship has changed in significant ways that is relevant to the current transitional period.

Prof. Nathan Brown interviewed by RN Research Associate Bouchra Chakroune (audio podcast)

Nathan Brown, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs, George Washington University and Non-Resident Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Nathan J. Brown, a professor of political science and international affairs at George Washington University, is a distinguished scholar and author of six well-received books on Arab politics. Brown brings his special expertise on Islamist movements, Palestinian politics, and Arab law and constitutionalism to the Endowment. Brown’s latest book, When Victory Is Not an Option: Islamist Movements in Arab Politics, was published by Cornell University Press in early 2012. His current work focuses on Islamist movements and their role in politics in the Arab world.

In 2009, Brown was named a Carnegie Scholar by the Carnegie Corporation of New York; for the 2009–2010 academic year he is a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. In addition to his academic work Brown has served on advisory committees for Human Rights Watch and the committees drafting the Palestinian and Iraqi constitutions. He has also served as a consultant to USAID, the United Nations Development Program, and several nongovernmental organizations.

Selected Publications: Resuming Arab Palestine (University of California Press, 2003); Constitutions in a Non-Constitutional World: Arab Basic Laws and Prospects for Accountable Government (SUNY Press, 2001); The Rule of Law in the Arab World: Courts in Egypt and the Arab States of the Gulf (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

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Ms. Wafa Ben Hassine

Gender Justice in Post-Ben Ali Tunisia: Women and Political Participation

This article outlines the challenges of political participation of women in Tunisia’s current institutional arrangement.

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Wafa Ben Hassine, International Law Student and Human Rights Activist

Wafa Ben Hassine is a JD candidate at the University of Denver, Sturm College of Law, pursuing international legal studies. She holds a BA in political science and public law from the University of California, San Diego. Wafa has worked as a parliamentary attaché at the National Constituent Assembly in Tunis, and as a freelance writer and translator. Her research interests include sustainable development (social and environmental) in the global south – particularly in the Maghreb – and studying the legal framework that is emerging in post-Ben Ali Tunisia.

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Mr. Omar Ould Dedde Ould Hamady

The Constitution-Making Process in Tunisia: Issues and Challenges

This article focuses on many of the controversial issues that the Constituent Assembly must handle: the political system, the place of international law, Islamic Shari‘a and women’s rights.

Article not yet available

Omar Hamady, Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law

Omar Ould Dedde Ould Hamady is a Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law where he focuses on the Middle East and North Africa. He holds a Master degree in Public international and European Law from Université Paris XI, and a Master in Diplomacy and International organization from the same university. He is a PhD candidate in Public International Law at the University Paris II Panthéon-Assas researching on ”The exercise of powers of the UN Security Council under Chapter VII since the end of cold war”. He has authored articles in many international law journals as well as in the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law.

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Dr. Mohammed Chafik Sarsar

Role of the Judiciary in the Constitutional Protection of State Law

A step by step analysis of the importance of the role of the Judiciary in protecting state law by first understanding what we mean by state law, the conditions of state law, and the meaning and importance behind constitutional jurisprudence.

Download powerpoint presentation

Mohammed Chafik Sarsar, Professor of Constituent Law, Member of the High Commission for the Realization of the Objectives of the Revolution in Tunisia

Dr Mohammed Chafik Sarsar is a lecturer at the Faculty of Law and Politics in Tunis. He is also the Director of the Department of Political Sciences at the Faculty of Law and a member of the Committee of Experts of the High Commission for the Realization of the Objectives of the Revolution, Political Reform and Democratic Transition. He is a Lecturer in Human Rights and Public Freedoms at the Higher Institute of the Judiciary. He has written a number of articles, the most recent of which is titled “Les instances constitutionnelles dans l’avant projet de l’Assemblée” in Journée d’étude organised by the Tunisian Association of Constitutional Law.

Full CV

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Mr. Duncan Pickard

The Risks of Semi-Presidentialism in Emerging Democracies (with Prof. Feldman)

The issue of the division of power is the most fundamental unresolved question in the draft constitution. This paper discusses why a semi-presidential system is not suited to Tunisia.

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Duncan Pickard, Constitutional Specialist, Democracy Reporting International

Duncan Pickard is a constitutional specialist with Democracy Reporting International, where he writes on political developments in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia. He is also a non-resident fellow at the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East and a constitutional advisor at Harvard Law School. He has worked in Tunis with the National Constituent Assembly and the International Foundation for Electoral Systems. He is a graduate of Tufts University and Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. He is based in Berlin.

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Mr. Bassem Karray

Acts Organising Provisional Tunisian Public Authorities: Legal Analysis and Political Extension

This article provides a legal analysis of the acts currently governing public authorities and questions the political commitment of the current regime to reform.

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The National Constituent Assembly: Historical Lessons and Contemporary Stakes

Drawing on historical lessons, this article analyses the actions of the National Constituent Assembly and their implications.

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Bassem Karray, Senior Lecturer in Public Law, The Higher Institute of Legal Studies of Gabès, Tunisia

Bassem Karray was a Lecturer in Public Law at the Sfax Faculty of Law until 2011 and now is a Senior Lecturer in Public Law at the Higher Institute of Legal Studies of Gabès, Tunisia. He is a member of the Fiscal Studies Center and Doctoral School of the Sfax Faculty of Law, an associated member of the European Law Laboratory of the Faculty of Legal, Political and Social Science of Tunis and a member of a regional transnational research group (2002-2004) formed by University of Malta and European commission (theme: integration and cooperation between European Union and euro Mediterranean countries). He has taken part in a number of International seminars and has written a host of articles in French and English.

Full CV

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Ms. Chema Gargouri

The Role of Civil Society in Tunisia’s Democratic Transition: Public Participation and Consultation

Chema Gargouri discusses the changes in civil society after the fall in Ben Ali; the challenges and successes.

Ms. Chema Gargouri interviewed by RN Research Associate Bouchra Chakroune (audio podcast)

Chema Gargouri, Tunisia Country Director, Women Enterprise for Sustainability

Since 2011 Chéma Gargouri has been acting as Country Director for the Institute of International Education e-mediat and then Women Enterprise for Sustainability; MEPI (US State Department) funded programs that aim at enhancing the strategic use of social media by Tunisian NGOs and the empowerment of women leadership and entrepreneurship. Ms. Chema Gargouri is the manager and major shareholder of the Centre for Applied Training, a business development private company established in 1998. Her areas of expertise are project design and management, SE Business Development, and institutional and capacity building services.

Full CV

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Dr. Riddhi Sohan Dasgupta

An Anti-Corruption Amendment in the Tunisian Constitution: Fool’s Errand or a Real Tour de Force?

Discussing the impact of banning public and private corruption in Tunisia; the incentives and disincentives and the potential growth of a Black Market while taking a comparative look at the rest of the Maghreb.

Dr. Riddhi Sohan Dasgupta on “An Anti-Corruption Amendment in the Tunisian Constitution” (audio podcast)

Riddhi Sohan Dasgupta, Senior Advisor, Tunisia Constitution Project, Wilberforce Society

Dr. Riddhi Dasgupta is involved in a comparative constitutionalism project, drafting a proposal for the new constitution of Tunisia, on behalf of an international law and policy consortium. He will deliver a TED lecture on this topic soon. Dr. Riddhi Dasgupta completed his Ph.D. in international law at the University of Cambridge in February 2012. His doctoral topic, “Expropriation in International Investment and Property Regimes,” concerns the cross-pollination of expropriation-related standards across international dispute settlement. The dissertation will be published as a book in 2013. Dr. Dasgupta will clerk on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in the near future.

Full CV

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Mr. Bsili Adel

Les Aspects Techniques du Processus de la Rédaction de la Constitution

A comprehensive analysis of the technical aspects of the process of drafting the Tunisian constitution, highlighting challenges as well as accomplishments.

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Bsili Adel, Legal Advisor, National Constituent Assembly of Tunisia

Since March 1991, Bsili Adel has been the General Counsel of the Committee on Social Affairs, the Committee on Education, Culture, Information and Youth and the Committee on Equipment and Services of the Chamber of Deputies. From November 2011 to January 2012, he has been Advisor to the Committee on Internal Regulations and since February, Advisor to the Committee on the Magistrature Judiciaire, Administrative, Financial and Constitutional Affairs for the National Constituent Assembly (ANC). Fascinated by parliamentary law, he maintains, since 2007, a blog dedicated to issues related to law, drawn from the Tunisian experience.

Full CV

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Prof. Alaya Allani

Islamism and Salafism after the Tunisian Revolution

Professor Alaya Allani answers questions on the nature of Islamism and the rise of Salafism after the revolution in Tunisia. He highlights the most important parties, their philosophies and leaders.

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Alaya Allani, Historian and Researcher on Islamism in Maghreb, Monouba University of Tunisia

Professor Alaya Allani is a prominent historian and researcher on Islamism in the Maghreb. He is the Associate Professor in Contemporary History at the Faculty of Letters, Arts and Humanities at the Monouba University in Tunis. He is also a member of the Research Unit “Society and Parallel Society” and has published his thesis on Islamism in Tunisia. His research interests include Islamism in the Maghreb, The Protest Movements in Tunisia and International Relations. He has published a significant number of articles in academic journals in Arabic, French and English.

Full CV

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General information on Tunisia’s transition

MECF Program Director Tobias Peyerl on the constitutional transition in Tunisia

Interview with former Amnesty MENA Director Ahmed Karaoud on necessary reforms in Tunisia

 

All constitutional events

Click for information on the methodology

The country pages are collections from information openly available on the web or documents obtained by the MECF with national constitutional events categorized as follows:

1. New Constitutional Document

A “New Constitutional Document” under the terms of this website is a text that bears new constitutional authority, which was not enacted by a preexisting amendment procedure of the highest law available.

2. Amendment

Documents are categorized as “Amendments” if they were established according to an existing constitutional amendment procedure.

3. Proposal

A “Proposal” is an amendment that was not or is supposed to be implemented in future.

4. Interpretation

An “Interpretation” is a legal determination by a body that is endowed with the authority to issue binding interpretations on the constitutional text. This category is not limited to courts or other traditional bodies of the judiciary. Exemplary bodies include constitutional courts or boards.

5. Related Legal Text

“Related Legal Texts” are those legal documents that are directly relevant to the constitutional provisions and are hierarchically placed below constitutional legal authority. Examples include election laws, laws relating to political parties and laws on the judiciary.

We list secondary materials for each constitutional event of the five categories. These include scholarly articles and the travaux préparatoires.

 

01/06/2013 | Proposal | Final Draft of new Tunisia Constitution

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. AFP, الانتهاء من صياغة مشروع الدستور التونسي الجديد, Al Arabiya News, June 2, 2013, Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).
2. Amira Masrour, Coalition of Assembly Members Rejects Draft Constitution as Illegal, Tunisia Live, June 4, 2013,Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).
3. Emily Parker, Final Draft of Constitution Announced, but Approval Remains Questionable, Tunisia Live, June 3, 2013, Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).
4. مشروع الدستور التونسي الجديد يعرض للمناقشة بعد, DW.DE, June 2, 2013, Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).…

08/08/2012 | Proposal | First Draft of entire new Tunisian Constitution

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Alice Fordham, Tunisia’s draft constitution brands women ‘complementary’ to men, The National, August 6, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 15, 2012).
2. Megan Radford, NGO Criticizes Limits on Press Freedom in Tunisia’s Draft Constitution, Tunisia Live, August 2, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 15, 2012).
3. Tunisia’s New Constitution : A Look From Within, Tunisia Live, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 14, 2012).
4. الشروق :«الشروق» تنفرد بنشر أوّل نسخة من مشروع الدستور الجديد, Alchourouk.com, Link (last visited Aug 14, 2012).
5. Tunisia: Fix Serious Flaws in Draft Constitution, Human Rights Watch, September 13, 2012, Link (last visited Sep 17, 2012).

04/06/2012 | Proposal | Finalized Draft of the Preamble for the new Tunisian Constitution

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Thierry Brésillon, Encadré : le texte du préambule de la future Constitution tunisienne, Tunisie Libre, June 9, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 19, 2012).
2. Ahmed Medien, Tunisia: Final Draft of New Constitution Preamble Causes Controversy, Global Voices, June 18, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 19, 2012).
3. Farah Samti, Final Draft of Preamble to 2012 Tunisian Constitution, Tunisia Live, June 8, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 19, 2012).…

10/12/2011 | New Constitutional Document | Law on the Interim Organisation of Public Powers of Tunisia

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Amine Ghali, Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), The Daily Star, Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
2. Amin Allal, Avant on tenait le mur, maintenant on tient le quartier, 121 Politique africaine 53–67.
3. Hédi Ben Mrad, La question constitutionnelle, Link.
4. Sami Bostanji, La guerre de l’article premier n’aura pas lieu, Link.
5. Houki Chaker, Les conseils pour la protection de la révolution.
6. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.
7. Letter to the Tunisian National Constituent Assembly Regarding the New Constitution, Human Rights Watch, March 19, 2012, Link (last visited Mar 22, 2012).

24/09/2011 | Related Legal Text | Decree 88-2011 on associations

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Allan Bradley, Eleven Political Parties Agree to Limit Mandate of Constituent Assembly : Tunisia Live (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
2. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).
3. Amine Ghali, THE DAILY STAR – Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
4. Amin Allal, Avant on tenait le mur, maintenant on tient le quartier, 121 Politique africaine 53–67.
5. Hédi Ben Mrad, La question constitutionnelle, Link.
6. Sami Bostanji, La guerre de l’article premier n’aura pas lieu, Link.
7. Houki Chaker, Les conseils pour la protection de la révolution.
8. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.

24/09/2011 | Related Legal Text | Decree 87-2011 on political parties

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Allan Bradley, Eleven Political Parties Agree to Limit Mandate of Constituent Assembly : Tunisia Live (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
2. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).
3. Amine Ghali, THE DAILY STAR – Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
4. Amin Allal, Avant on tenait le mur, maintenant on tient le quartier, 121 Politique africaine 53–67.
5. Hédi Ben Mrad, La question constitutionnelle, Link.
6. Sami Bostanji, La guerre de l’article premier n’aura pas lieu, Link.
7. Houki Chaker, Les conseils pour la protection de la révolution.
8. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.

03/08/2011 | Related Legal Text | Decree 72-2011 modifying Decree 35-2011

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Allan Bradley, Eleven Political Parties Agree to Limit Mandate of Constituent Assembly : Tunisia Live (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
2. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).
3. Amine Ghali, THE DAILY STAR – Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
4. Amin Allal, Avant on tenait le mur, maintenant on tient le quartier, 121 Politique africaine 53–67.
5. Hédi Ben Mrad, La question constitutionnelle, Link.
6. Sami Bostanji, La guerre de l’article premier n’aura pas lieu, Link.
7. Houki Chaker, Les conseils pour la protection de la révolution.
8. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.

10/05/2011 | Related Legal Text | Decree 35-2011 promulgating the electoral code on the election of the Constituent Assembly

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Maria Cristina Pacielly, Tunisia: Changes and Challenges of Political Transition (2011), Link.
2. Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly: The Situation in Tunisia (2011), Link.
3. Allan Bradley, Eleven Political Parties Agree to Limit Mandate of Constituent Assembly : Tunisia Live (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
4. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).
5. Amine Ghali, THE DAILY STAR – Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
6. Amin Allal, Avant on tenait le mur, maintenant on tient le quartier, 121 Politique africaine 53–67.
7. Hédi Ben Mrad, La question constitutionnelle, Link.
8. Sami Bostanji, La guerre de l’article premier n’aura pas lieu, Link.
9. Houki Chaker, Les conseils pour la protection de la révolution.
10. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.

18/04/2011 | Related Legal Text | Decree 27-2011 creating an Independent High Authority for the elections

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Crisis Group, Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (IV): Tunisia’s Way (2011), Link.
2. Amine Ghali, THE DAILY STAR – Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
3. Maria Cristina Pacielly, Tunisia: Changes and Challenges of Political Transition (2011), Link.
4. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.

18/02/2011 | Related Legal Text | Decree 06-2011 establishing the High Commission for the Realization of Revolution Objectives, Political Reforms and Democratic Transition

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Alexis Arieff, Political Transition in Tunisia – Report for Congress (2011), Link.
2. Tunisie, Décret-loi n° 2011-6, Digithèque MJP, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 3, 2012).

12/07/1988 | Amendment | Minimum Age for Presidential Candidates

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

Français

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Republique Tunisienne, Loi constitutionnelle n 88-88 du 25 julliet 1988 modifiant la constitution (1988), Link.

01/06/1959 | New Constitutional Document | 1959 Constitution of Tunisia

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English

Secondary Materials:

1. The Tunisian Constitution, 13 Middle East Journal 443–448 (1959).
2. Nathan J. Brown, Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World – Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government (2002).

25/07/1957 | New Constitutional Document | 1957 Declaration of the Republic of Tunisia

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Victor Silvera, Du régime beylical à la République tunisienne, 22 Politique étrangère 594–611 (1957).
2. Kenneth J Perkins, A History of modern Tunisia (2004).…

26/04/1861 | New Constitutional Document | 1861 Constitution of Tunisia

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

Français

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. The Tunisian Constitution, 13 Middle East Journal 443–448 (1959).
2. Nathan J. Brown, Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World – Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government (2002).…

 

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