Regional Timeline

How it works
The Regional Timeline contains — for each of the 27 countries covered by the MECF — current and past constitutions brought into a historical comparative perspective by a simple but effective line.In the main timeline the ‘year boxes’ serve not only as section dividers, but also as anchors for the vertical navigation bar and links back to the top of the page.In the vertical navigation bar to the right, each year is linked directly to the associated content in the main timeline.For the sake of overview and clarity this timeline focuses solely on the category “New Constitutional Document” and current “Proposals” and leaves out subsequent “Amendments”, “Interpretations” and “Related Legal Texts” to the constitution (see methodology).Quick access to the current version of the constitutions can be found on the map(subsequent amendments may have been passed after the adoption of a new constitution). For comprehensive constitutional information visit the relevant country page(s).

 

  1. Links to the amendment in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Zaid Al-Ali, Another Egyptian constitutional declaration, Foreign Policy – The Middle East Channel, July 9, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
    2. Fatma Khaled, Al-Nour Party rejects constitution committee – Daily News Egypt, Daily News Egypt, July 16, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
    3. Mada Masr, In the Interim: The Constitutional Declaration Retains Some Contentious Articles, Jadaliyya, July 12, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).

  2. Links to the amendment in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Roxanne Escobales et al., Egypt’s “day of rejection” – Friday 5 July as it happened, The Guardian, July 5, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
    2. Egypt’s interim leader dissolves Shura Council, Al Arabiya News, July 5, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
    3. Egypt’s Mansour dissolves Shura Council | News | DW.DE | 05.07.2013, DW.DE, July 5, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. AFP, الانتهاء من صياغة مشروع الدستور التونسي الجديد, Al Arabiya News, June 2, 2013, Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).
    2. Amira Masrour, Coalition of Assembly Members Rejects Draft Constitution as Illegal, Tunisia Live, June 4, 2013,Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).
    3. Emily Parker, Final Draft of Constitution Announced, but Approval Remains Questionable, Tunisia Live, June 3, 2013, Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).
    4. مشروع الدستور التونسي الجديد يعرض للمناقشة بعد, DW.DE, June 2, 2013, Link (last visited Jun 5, 2013).

  1. Links to the amendment in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. The new constitutional text of the declaration issued by the Mursi – Editorial, Tahrir News.com, November 22, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
    2. Ekram Ibrahim, Salafist support for Morsi limited to recent constitutional declaration, Ahram Online, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
    3. Chibli Mallat, President Morsi: The Dubious Authority of a “Constitutional Declaration”, JURIST, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
    4. English text of Morsi’s Constitutional Declaration, Ahram Online, November 22, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
    5. Egypt president stresses constitutional declaration is “temporary”, “necessary”, Ahram Online, November 30, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).

  2. Links to the amendment in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Bassem Abo Alabass, Sherif Tarek & Ahram Online, Legal experts question legitimacy of Morsi’s constitutional changes, Ahram Online, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).
    2. Randa Ali & Sara Mourad, Morsi’s Sunday surprise met with broad support by Egypt political forces, Ahram Online, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).
    3. Egypt President Mursi explains army chief replacement, BBC News, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).
    4. Egypt’s president asserts authority over army, Al Jazeera English, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    Afsoomaali

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    The new constitution still possesses earmarks concerning specific issues that will be discussed in the future parliament. Only after a national referendum the Provisional Constitution will enter into force.

    Secondary Materials:

    1. George Okere, Somalia moves to get new constitution, AfricaNews, August 1, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 1, 2012).
    2. Somali Draft Provisional Constitution Guidebook, United Nations Political Office for Somalia, July 25, 2012, Link (English), Link (Somali) (last visited Aug 1, 2012).
    3. Somali leaders pass new constitution after thwarting attack, USA Today, August 1, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 1, 2012).
    4. Somali Leaders Approve New Constitution, Voice of America, August 1, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 1, 2012).
    5. Somali leaders back new constitution, BBC News, August 1, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 1, 2012).
    6. Statement from the SRSG on the adoption of the Provisional Constitution of the Somalia Republic, United Nations Political Office for Somalia, August 1, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 1, 2012).

  4. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Al Jazeera English, Syria says new constitution approved (2012), Link (last visited Mar 9, 2012).
    2. Jurist, Paper Chase: Syria voters approve new constitution (2012), Link (last visited Mar 9, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Amine Ghali, Commentary: A tangled road lies ahead in Tunisia’s constitutional process (2011), The Daily Star, Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).
    2. Amin Allal, Avant on tenait le mur, maintenant on tient le quartier, 121 Politique africaine 53–67.
    3. Hédi Ben Mrad, La question constitutionnelle, Link.
    4. Sami Bostanji, La guerre de l’article premier n’aura pas lieu, Link.
    5. Houki Chaker, Les conseils pour la protection de la révolution.
    6. Hamadi Redissi, La nahdha et la transition démocratique, Link.
    7. Letter to the Tunisian National Constituent Assembly Regarding the New Constitution, Human Rights Watch, March 19, 2012, Link (last visited Mar 22, 2012).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Announcement by President Bashar Al Assad of a National Committee charged with preparing a new constitution within four months, Link.

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Mohamed Tozy, Monarchie et Islam politique (1st ed. 1999).
    2. Morocco: Government Explains New Constitution (English), (2011), Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).
    3. Norddin Hennani, Le Projet de la Nouvelle Constitution: entre audace et prudence (2011), Link.
    4. Tozy Mohamed, Du bon usage de la monarchie, La Revue, April 11, 2011.
    5. Béatrice Hibou, Le mouvement du 20 février, le Makhzen et l’antipolitique. L’impensé des réformes au Maroc (2011), Link.
    6. Women’s Rights in the Draft Constitution | Women’s Learning Partnership, (2011), Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).
    7. Carolyn A. Dubay, Morocco’s “Arab Spring” and Judicial Independence (2011), Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

     

  4. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Ahramonline, Egypt’s constitution: A controversial declaration (2011), Link.
    2. RN Advisory Board Member Ayman Nour on the Constituent Assembly, Al Jazeera English, April 2, 2012. Video

    The video cannot be shown at the moment. Please try again later.

  5. Links to the amendment in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Egypt: Constitutional Proclamation, Scoop News, February 14, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).
    2. Press Release: Egyptian Military Constitutional Proclamation, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Korwa Adar, Sudan peace process : challenges and future prospects (1. publ. ed. 2004).
    2. Markus Böckenförde, Shari’ah and Human Rights in the Interim Constitution of Sudan, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    3. Böckenförde, Markus, Constitutional Engineering and Decentralization – Federal Structures as a means for Peace-Building in Sudan, in Transitional Constitutionalism 25-48 (H. Eberhard, K. Lachmeyer, & G. Thallinger eds., 2007).
    4. Elliesie, Hatem, Friedensprozess und Verfassungsentwicklung im Sudan, 38 Verfassung und Recht in Übsersee 276-307 (2005).
    5. Elliesie, Hatem, Quo vadis bilad as-Sudan? The Contemporary Framework for a National Interim Constitution, 8 Recht in Afrika 63-81 (2005).
    6. Elliesie, Hatem, Rule of Law in Sudan, in Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World (Koetter, Matthias & Schuppert, Gunnar Folke eds., 2010).
    7. Noah Ibrahim, The Sudanese Bill of Rights, 12 International Journal of Human Rights 613-635 (2008).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Kurdî/كوردى

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Zaid Al-Ali, Constitutional Legitimacy in Iraq: What Role Local Context?, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    2. Bawar Bammarny, Rule of Law in Iraq, in Understanding the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World (Koetter, Matthias & Schuppert, Gunnar Folke eds., 2011).
    3. Jörg Fedtke & Al-Ali, Zaid, The Constitution of Iraq: A Contextual Analysis (2011).
    4. Robert Springborg, Democratic Beacon in Iraq: A dim light indeed, Orient 6-11 (2011).
    5. Kirsten Stilt, Islamic Law and the Remaking of the Iraqi Legal System, 36 George Washington International Law Review 395 (2004).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Abdel Wedoud O. Cheikh, Une armée de tribus? Les militaires et le pouvoir en Mauritanie, 35 The Maghreb Review 339 (2010).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Kurdî/العربية

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Andrew Arato, Constitution Making Under Occupation: The Politics of Imposed Revolution in Iraq (2009).
    2. Larry Diamond, Key Democratic Principles of Iraq’s Transitional Administrative Law (2004), Link.
    3. Kirsten Stilt, Islamic Law and the Remaking of the Iraqi Legal System, 36 George Washington International Law Review 395 (2004).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    Afsoomaali

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Al-Jazeera English, In search of a Somali constitution (2011), Link (last visited Jan 13, 2012).
    2. Somalia Law Council, Somali Constitutions (2004), Link (last visited Jan 13, 2012).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى 

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Khalil Shikaki & Jihad Harb, Toward a More Open and Inclusive Political System: A Return to a Presidential System is a Return to Instability, The Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (2005).
    2. Eugen Cotran & Emma Brown, The Protection of Human Rights in the Palestinian Territories, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    3. Ziad Abu Amir, The Palestinian Legislative Council: A Critical Assessment, 26 Journal of Palestinian Studies 90-97 (1997).
    4. Nathan J. Brown, Requiem for Palestinian Reform: Clear Lessons from a Troubled Record, 81 Carnegie Papers (20007 Feb), Link.
    5. Nathan J. Brown, Palestinian Politics after the Oslo Accords: Resuming Arab Politics (2003).
    6. Mathias Mossberg, One Land, Two States? Parallels States as an Example of “Out of the Box” Thinking on Israel/Palestine, 39 Journal of Palestine Studies 39-45 (2010).
    7. Muriel Asseburg, Fatah-Hamas-Abkommen: Ein wichtiger Schritt zu einer Zwei-Staaten-Regelung (2011), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

     العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Nathan J. Brown, Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World: Arab Basic Laws and the Proposectrs for Accountable Government (2002).
    2. Alexander Gramsch, Die Umwandlung Bahrains in eine Konstitutionelle Monarchie: Einordnung und Bewertung der Verfassungsreform aus dem Jahr 2002, Jahrbuch für Verfassung, Recht und Staat im islamischen Kontext 159-194 (2011).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Khalil Shikaki & Jihad Harb, Toward a More Open and Inclusive Political System: A Return to a Presidential System is a Return to Instability, The Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (2005).
    2. Eugen Cotran & Emma Brown, The Protection of Human Rights in the Palestinian Territories, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    3. Ziad Abu Amir, The Palestinian Legislative Council: A Critical Assessment, 26 Journal of Palestinian Studies 90-97 (1997).
    4. Nathan J. Brown, Requiem for Palestinian Reform: Clear Lessons from a Troubled Record, 81 Carnegie Papers (20007 Feb), Link.
    5. Nathan J. Brown, Palestinian Politics after the Oslo Accords: Resuming Arab Politics (2003).
    6. Mathias Mossberg, One Land, Two States? Parallels States as an Example of “Out of the Box” Thinking on Israel/Palestine, 39 Journal of Palestine Studies 39-45 (2010).
    7. Muriel Asseburg, Fatah-Hamas-Abkommen: Ein wichtiger Schritt zu einer Zwei-Staaten-Regelung (2011), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    Afsoomaali

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Somalia Law Council, Somali Constitutions (2004), Link (last visited Jan 13, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Lias Bantekas & Hassan Abu-Sabeib, Reconciliation of Islamic Law with constitutionalism: the protection of human rights in Sudan’s new constitution, 12 African Journal of International and Comparative Law 531-553 (2000).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Abdallah Baali, The Algerian Constitution: A Constitution Based on the Separation of Powers and the Protection of Individual and Collective Freedoms, in International Commission of Jurists – The Review No. 60 – Special Issue 1998 103-112.
    2. Thierry Le Roy, Constitutionalism in the Maghreb: Between French Heritage and Islamic Concepts, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    3. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Said Sultan Al Hashimi, The Omani Spring: towards the break of a new dawn (2011), Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).
    2. Jeremy Jones, Democratic Development in Oman, 59 Middle East Journal 376-392 (2005).
    3. Joseph A. Kéchichian, A Vision of Oman: State of the Sultanate Speeches by Qaboos Bin Said, 1970-2006, 15 Middle East Policy 112 (2008).
    4. Nikolaus A. Siegfried, Legislation and Legitimation in Oman: The Basic Law, 7 Islamic Law and Society 359-397 (2000).
    5. Mohamed Tozy, Religion and the Stakes in Morocco, 1 Middle East Research Associates Journal 13-33 (1995).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Mohamed Tozy, Monarchie et Islam politique (1st ed. 1999).
    2. A. Hammoudi, Master and Discipline. The Foundations of Moroccan Authoritarianism (1997).
    3. In the Shadow of the Sultan. Culture, Power and Politics in Morocco, (R. Bourqia & Miller eds., 1999).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials

    1. Norddin Hennani, Le Projet de la Nouvelle Constitution: entre audace et prudence (2011), Link.

     

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    English – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Abdo A Abdallah. 2007. State Building, Independence, and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Djibouti, 269-280, Lund, Sweden, August 24.
  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  4. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  5. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Paul Aarts, Maintaining Authoritarianism: The Jerky Path of Political Reform in Saudi Arabia, Orient 29-39 (2011).
    2. Abdulaziz H. Al-Fahad, Ornamental Constitutionalism: The Saudi Basic Law of Governance, 30 Yale Journal of International Law 375.
    3. Ayoub M. Al-Jarbou, Judicial review of administrative action under the Saudi law (2011).
    4. Ayoub M. Al-Jarbou, Judicial Independence: Case Study of Saudi Arabia, 19 Arab Law Quarterly 5-54 (2004).
    5. Ayoub M. Al-Jarbou, The Role of Traditionalists and Modernists on the Development of the Saudi Legal System, 21 Arab Law Quarterly 191 (2007).
    6. Hossein Esmaeili, On a Slow Boat Towards the Rule of Law: The Nature of Law in the Saudi Arabian System, 26 The Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 1 (2009).
    7. International Constitutional Law Project, University of Berne, Constitutional Background Saudi Arabia (2010), Link (last visited Jan 13, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Ahmed S. O. Bouboutt, Le juge constitutionnel face aux enjeux de la démocratisation dans les pays arabes : à propos du Conseil constitutionnel mauritanien, in Les constitutions des pays arabes 297-306 (Centre d’Études des Droits du Monde Arabe ed., 1997).
    2. Bouboutt, Ahmed S. O., La construction de l’état de droit en Mauritanie : enjeux, stratégies et parcours, in L’ Etat de droit dans le monde arabe 301-341 (Ahmed Mahiou ed., CNRS-éditions ed. 1997).
    3. Omar O. Dedde O. Hamady, L’évolution des institutions politiques mauritaniennes: Bilan et perspectives au lendemain de la réforme constitutionnelle du 25 juin 2006, 67 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 907-947 (2007).
    4. Philippe Marchesin, Juge moderne et droit musluman : le cas de la Mauritanie, 156 in Afrique Contemporaine 261-266 (1990).
    5. Anthony G. Pazzanita, The origins and evolution of Mauritania’s Second Republic, 34 The Journal of Modern African Studies 575-596 (1996).
    6. Abdel Wedoud O. Cheikh, Une armée de tribus? Les militaires et le pouvoir en Mauritanie, 35 The Maghreb Review 339 (2010).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Shamiri, Nageeb, and Anna Würth. Yemen: A Burgeoning Democracy on the Arab Peninsula? In Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity, ed. Grote, Rainer and Röder, Tilmann J. 2011-10.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    Afsoomaali - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Somalia Law Council, Somali Constitutions (2004), Link (last visited Jan 13, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Charte constitutionnelle du Comité militaire de salut national du 9 février 1985.
    Journal officiel, 1985-02-27, No. 632-633, pp. 112-113 (online version Français - [Support the project - submit available references]).

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Anthony G. Pazzanita, The origins and evolution of Mauritania’s Second Republic, 34 The Journal of Modern African Studies 575-596 (1996).
    2. Omar O. Dedde O. Hamady, L’évolution des institutions politiques mauritaniennes: Bilan et perspectives au lendemain de la réforme constitutionnelle du 25 juin 2006, 67 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 907-947 (2007).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Türk – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/کوردی –  [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. International Constitutional Law Project University of Bern, Constitutional Background Turkey (2010), Link (last visited Jan 11, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    فارسى

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials

    1. International Constitutional Law Project, University of Berne, Iran Constitutional Background (2010), Link.
    2. Neil Shevlin, Velayat-E Faqih in the Constitution of Iran: The Implementation of Theocracy (1999), Link.

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    Afsoomaali

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Somalia Law Council, Somali Constitutions (2004), Link (last visited Jan 13, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Thierry Le Roy, Constitutionalism in the Maghreb: Between French Heritage and Islamic Concepts, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    2. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Nathan J. Brown, Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World: Arab Basic Laws and the Proposectrs for Accountable Government (2002).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Jacques El Hakim, Les Principes Constitutionnels dans la Constitution Syrienne du 13 Mars 1973, Link.
    2. Peter B. Heller, The Permanent Syrian Constitution of March 13, 1973, 28 Middle East Journal 53-66 (1974).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    [Support the project - submit available references]

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials

    1. Mohamed Tozy, Monarchie et Islam politique (1st ed. 1999).
    2. A. Hammoudi, Master and Discipline. The Foundations of Moroccan Authoritarianism (1997).
    3. In the Shadow of the Sultan. Culture, Power and Politics in Morocco, (R. Bourqia & Miller eds., 1999).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    [Support the project - submit available references]

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [Support the project - submit available references]

    English – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Hatem Elliesie, Rule of Law in Egypt, in Understanding the Rule of Law in Various Legal Orders of the World (Matthias Koetter & Gunnar Folke Schuppert eds., 2010).
    2. Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron, Strong Presidentialism: The Model of Egypt, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Mohamed Tozy, Monarchie et Islam politique (1st ed. 1999).
    2. A. Hammoudi, Master and Discipline. The Foundations of Moroccan Authoritarianism (1997).
    3. In the Shadow of the Sultan. Culture, Power and Politics in Morocco, (R. Bourqia & Miller eds., 1999).

     

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/كوردى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2004).
    2. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2002).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Jurist Legal Intelligence, Libya – Constitution, Government & Legislation, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).
    2. H.-P. Mattes, Islam und Staatsaufbau. Das theoretische Konzept und das Beispiel der Sozialistischen Libyschen Arabischen Volks-Jamahiriya (1982).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/كوردى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2004).
    2. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2002).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  1. Links to text in the following languages:

    درى

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/كوردى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2004).
    2. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2002).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 Link (Arabic).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Thierry Le Roy, Constitutionalism in the Maghreb: Between French Heritage and Islamic Concepts, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
    2. Imen Gallala, Constitutional Jurisdiction and its Limits in the Maghreb, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/كوردى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2004).
    2. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2002).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Mohamed Tozy, Monarchie et Islam politique (1st ed. 1999).
    2. A. Hammoudi, Master and Discipline. The Foundations of Moroccan Authoritarianism (1997).
    3. In the Shadow of the Sultan. Culture, Power and Politics in Morocco, (R. Bourqia & Miller eds., 1999).

     

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. International Constitutional Law Project, University of Berne, Kuwait Constitutional Background (2010), Link (last visited Jan 12, 2012).

  3. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Jayshree Bajoria, Pakistan’s Constitution, Council on Foreign Relations, Link (last visited Nov 17, 2012).
    2. The Constitution of 1962, The Story of Pakistan, June 1, 2003, Link.
    3. Arshad Hameed, The Constitution Of Pakistan – 1962, Awami Politics, March 27, 2012, Link.
    4. M. Rashiduzzaman, The National Assembly of Pakistan Under the 1962 Constitution, 42 Pacific Affairs 481 (1969).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Ahmed S. O. Bouboutt, Le juge constitutionnel face aux enjeux de la démocratisation dans les pays arabes : à propos du Conseil constitutionnel mauritanien, in Les constitutions des pays arabes 297-306 (Centre d’Études des Droits du Monde Arabe ed., 1997).
    2. Bouboutt, Ahmed S. O., La construction de l’état de droit en Mauritanie : enjeux, stratégies et parcours, in L’ Etat de droit dans le monde arabe 301-341 (Ahmed Mahiou ed., CNRS-éditions ed. 1997).
    3. Omar O. Dedde O. Hamady, L’évolution des institutions politiques mauritaniennes: Bilan et perspectives au lendemain de la réforme constitutionnelle du 25 juin 2006, 67 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 907-947 (2007).
    4. Philippe Marchesin, Juge moderne et droit musluman : le cas de la Mauritanie, 156 in Afrique Contemporaine 261-266 (1990).
    5. Ursel Clausen, Islam und nationale Religionspolitik: Das Fallbeispiel Mauretanien (2005).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. The Tunisian Constitution, 13 Middle East Journal 443–448 (1959).
    2. Nathan J. Brown, Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World – Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government (2002).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/كوردى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2004).

    2. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2002).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 Link (Arabic).

  3. Links to the text of in the following languages:

    עברית - [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Rivka Weill, Sui Generis? The Hybrid Israeli Constitutional Experience (2009), Link.
    2. The Knesset in the Government System, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Victor Silvera, Du régime beylical à la République tunisienne, 22 Politique étrangère 594–611 (1957).
    2. Kenneth J Perkins, A History of modern Tunisia (2004).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt Constitutional history at a glance, March 9, 2005, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).
    2. Nathan J. Brown, Egypt’s Constitutional Ghosts, Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Bajoria, Jayshree. “Pakistan’s Constitution.” Council on Foreign Relations, Link.
    2. “Salient Features of the Constitution of 1956.” Guesspapers.net, July 16, 2010, Link.
    3. Shafique, Khurram. “The Republic of Rumi”, Link.
    4. “The Constitution of Pakistan.” Story of Pakistan, January 2003. Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Constitutional Reform in Arab Countries: Jordan, (2011), Link (last visited Jan 12, 2012).
    2. Röder, Tilmann J., The Separation of Powers: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Tilmann J. Röder eds., 2011).
    3. UNDP-POGAR: Country Themes: Constitution: Jordan, Programme on Governance in the Arab Region, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Jurist Legal Intelligence, Libya – Constitution, Government & Legislation, Link (last visited Jan 10, 2012).
    2. H.-P. Mattes, Islam und Staatsaufbau. Das theoretische Konzept und das Beispiel der Sozialistischen Libyschen Arabischen Volks-Jamahiriya (1982).
    3. J. Abr. Frowein, Das de-facto-Regime im Völkerrecht: Eine Untersuchung zur Rechtsstellung „nichtanerkannter Staaten“ und ähnlicher Gebilde (1968).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    Syrian Official Gazette, Vol. 32 (September 7, 1950), pp. 3159-3175 (Online version -English - [Support the project - submit available references]).

    Secondary Materials:

    1.  Debate on the Draft Constitution, beginning with the meeting of July 7: Proceedings of the Constituent Assembly, Official Gazette, Vol. 32 (1950), pp. 630ff.
    2. Majid Khadduri, Constitutional Development in Syria: With Emphasis on the Constitution of 1950, 5 Middle East Journal 137-160 (1951).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 (Arabic).
    2. Attempts at Arab Unity and Projects, Center for Opinion Studies, July, 2008, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012) (Arabic).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    فارسی – [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt Constitutional history at a glance, March 9, 2005, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).
    2. Nathan J. Brown, Egypt’s Constitutional Ghosts, Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Français

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Majid Khadduri, Constitutional Development in Syria: With Emphasis on the Constitution of 1950, 5 Middle East Journal 137-160 (1951).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/كوردى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Phebe Marr, The Modern History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2004).
    2. Charles Tripp, A History of Iraq (2nd ed. ed. 2002).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. The Establishment of the Shura Council Representatives and the Election of its Members 1866, Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 523-538 Link (Arabic).
    2. Nathan J. Brown, Egypt’s Constitutional Ghosts, Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).

  2. Links to the text in the following languages:

    درى

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Afghanistan’s Flawed Constitutional Process (International Crisis Group) (2003), Link.
    2. Structure and Principles of the State Ramin Moschtagi, Max Planck Manual on Afghan Constitutional Law (3rd) (2009), Link.

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    فارسى – [Support the project - submit available references]

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    English [Word]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Edward Granville Browne, The Persian revolution of 1905-1909 (2010).

     

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Türk – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/کوردی –  [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. Richard Devereux, The first Ottoman Constitutional Period, a study of the Midhat Constitution and Parliament (1963).
    2. H Kayali, Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 27 International Journal of Middle East Studies 265–286 (1995).
    3. Walter F. Weiker, The Ottoman Bureaucracy: Modernization and Reform, 13 Administrative Science Quarterly 451–470 (1968).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية

    Français

    English - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Secondary Materials:

    1. The Tunisian Constitution, 13 Middle East Journal 443–448 (1959).
    2. Nathan J. Brown, Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World – Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government (2002).

  1. Links to the text in the following languages:

    العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

    Türk – [Support the project - submit available references]

    Kurdî/کوردی –  [Support the project - submit available references]

    English

    Secondary Materials:

    1. University of Michigan, Electronic Middle East Sourcebook, Islamfiche Project, June 8, 2004, Link (last visited May 11, 2012).
    2. Niyazi Berkes, The Development of Secularism in Turkey (1964).
    3. Bernhard Lewis, The Emergence of Modern Turkey (1961).
    4. Butrus Abu Manneh, The Islamic Roots of the Gülhane Rescript, 34 Die Welt des Islams 173–203 (1994).
    5. Erik J. Zürcher, Turkey: A Modern History (1998).

Facebook

YouTube