Egypt

 

Overview

Constitutional document in force:

 

 

General information on Egypt’s transition

RN Associate Mara Revkin and RN Constitutional Advocate Yussel Auf in The Atlantic: Egypt's Fallen Police State Gives Way to Vigilante Justice

RN Associate Mara Revkin and RN Constitutional Advocate Yussef Auf, in an article for the global edition of The Atlantic, provide a summary analysis of the virtual absence of national security in Egypt and the attendant rise of violent vigilante justice predominantly carried out by hard line Islamist parties through groups they designate “popular committees”.  Citing recent legislative efforts within the Islamist-dominated parliament to legalize citizen militias and the expansion of Islamic criminal law, the authors note that “…Egypt’s government has done little to discourage the devolution of law enforcement functions to non-state actors.”

Read the full article at The Atlantic.

RN Associate Mara Revkin in EgyptSource: Outsourcing Justice in the Sinai

RN Associate Mara Revkin, in an article for Atlantic Council’s EgyptSource, offers a detailed analysis of the complex dynamic that has led to the proliferation and popularity of Shari’a courts and vigilante security groups in the “economically destitute and politically disadvantaged” Sinai Peninsula. Noting the historical basis for informal dispute resolution, she highlights that the weakness and negligence of the state, as much as religious fundamentalism, is responsible for the spread of Shari’a courts and the rise in shadow state ‘security’ organizations.

Read the full article in EgyptSource.

RN Chairman Chibli Mallat in Ahram: President Morsi’s last chance

RN Chairman Chibli Mallat, in an op-ed in Ahram suggests immediate measures that President Morsi could take to avoid a military coup in Egypt including appointment of an opposition figure as prime minister and formation of a representative and comprehensive coalition cabinet. He also identifies key actions related to human rights and the constitutional process to facilitate a calmer, more unified Egypt able to attract tourists and foreign investment.

Read the full article in Ahram.

RN Chairman Chibli Mallat in Ahram: Another missed opportunity

RN Chairman Chibli Mallat in an op-ed in Ahram notes that Egyptian Preisdent Morsi’s unilateral constitutional declarations are beyond presidential authority and suggests a a public policy statement of accountability that would address critical issues in the transitional period as an alternative mechanism to mitigate division within the country and revive the collective spirit of the Nile Revolution.

Read the full article in Ahram.

Constitutional scholar Jaclyn L. Neo in Daily Star: Rooting change in Egypt’s Constitution

Comparative constitutionalism scholar and RN affiliate Jaclyn Neo in an op-ed for The Daily Star  proposes that in order to meet the minimal (but not sufficient) conditions for a democratic state and institutionalize the goals of the Nile revolution, the Egyptian constitution should enshrine three core human rights principles – unamendable or to be altered only by super majority in a popular referendum – along with the citizen’s right to petition the courts. She notes that the disagreements surrounding the drafting of the constitution in Egypt ”obscure the core of the revolution that the constitution should be entrenching: the permanent transformation of the people from sectarian subjects into sovereign citizens.”

Read the full op-ed at The Daily Star.

RN Chairman Chibli Mallat on the Draft Constitution of Egypt

Rather than enshrine the democratic aspirations of the Egyptian revolution, the draft Constitution to be put to referendum in mid Dec. is faulty in execution, lacking in legitimacy and a set-back in terms of rights and liberties.

Thousands of Egyptian citizens have been pouring in the street to ask for ‘a constitution for all Egyptians’. Thousands others are marching for ‘legitimacy and Islamic law’. In the profound political and constitutional crisis in which revolutionary Egypt finds itself, one matter is certain: the constitutional process was rushed in the week of 22-30 November, and the Draft Constitution that emerged on Friday is highly divisive. The presidential announcement setting the referendum on December 15 is bound to make the crisis worse.

How does the Draft Constitution compare with the Amended 1971 Constitution it is meant to replace?

Read the full article at Ahram Online.

RN Associate Wendelin Federer on the constitutional transition in Egypt

To the Constitutional Transition Timeline for Egypt

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Discussion between Chibli Mallat and Tobias Peyerl on the legitimacy of the Egyptian Constituent Assembly

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Video explanation of President Morsi's Decree reestablishing the Egyptian Parliament

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All constitutional events

 

Click for information on the methodology

The country pages are collections from information openly available on the web or documents obtained by the MECF with national constitutional events categorized as follows:

1. New Constitutional Document

A “New Constitutional Document” under the terms of this website is a text that bears new constitutional authority, which was not enacted by a preexisting amendment procedure of the highest law available.

2. Amendment

Documents are categorized as “Amendments” if they were established according to an existing constitutional amendment procedure.

3. Proposal

A “Proposal” is an amendment that was not or is supposed to be implemented in future.

4. Interpretation

An “Interpretation” is a legal determination by a body that is endowed with the authority to issue binding interpretations on the constitutional text. This category is not limited to courts or other traditional bodies of the judiciary. Exemplary bodies include constitutional courts or boards.

5. Related Legal Text

“Related Legal Texts” are those legal documents that are directly relevant to the constitutional provisions and are hierarchically placed below constitutional legal authority. Examples include election laws, laws relating to political parties and laws on the judiciary.

We list secondary materials for each constitutional event of the five categories. These include scholarly articles and the travaux préparatoires.

 

08/07/2013 | New Constitutional Document | Presidential Constitutional Declaration Egypt

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Zaid Al-Ali, Another Egyptian constitutional declaration, Foreign Policy – The Middle East Channel, July 9, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
2. Fatma Khaled, Al-Nour Party rejects constitution committee – Daily News Egypt, Daily News Egypt, July 16, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
3. Mada Masr, In the Interim: The Constitutional Declaration Retains Some Contentious Articles, Jadaliyya, July 12, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).…

06/07/2013 | New Constitutional Document | Presidential Constitutional Declaration Egypt

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Roxanne Escobales et al., Egypt’s “day of rejection” – Friday 5 July as it happened, The Guardian, July 5, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
2. Egypt’s interim leader dissolves Shura Council, Al Arabiya News, July 5, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).
3. Egypt’s Mansour dissolves Shura Council | News | DW.DE | 05.07.2013, DW.DE, July 5, 2013, Link (last visited Jul 17, 2013).…

09/12/2012 | New Constitutional Document | Presidential Constitutional Declaration Egypt

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. “Egypt’s Leader Offers Concession.” BBC, December 9, 2012, sec. Middle East, Link.
2. “Egypt’s Morsi Annuls Constitutional Declaration.” RIA Novosti, December 9, 2012. Link.
3. El Deeb, Sarah. “Egypt Protest Call Renewed After Mohamed Morsi Annuls Decree.” Huffington Post, December 9, 2012. Link.
4. Hussein, Abdel-Rahman. “Egypt: Mohamed Morsi Cancels Decree That Gave Him Sweeping Powers.” The Guardian, December 8, 2012, sec. World news. Link.
5. McCrummen, Stephanie  and Abigail Hauslohner. “Egyptian Opposition Remains Defiant After Morsi Annuls Decree.” Washington Post, December 9, 2012. Link.…

29/11/2012 | New Constitutional Document | Final Draft of the Egyptian Constitution

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية [kindly provided by Ahram Online]

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Chibli Mallat, Reading the Draft Constitution of Egypt: Setbacks in substance, process, and legitimacy, Ahram Online, December 2, 2012, Link (last visited Dec 2, 2012).
2. UN OHCHR, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, alarmed by Egypt violence and by “major problems” with draft Constitution, United Nations Human Rights, December 7, 2012, Link (last visited Dec 7, 2012).
3. Egypt’s opposition protest on Friday to reject constitutional declaration, draft constitution, Ahram Online, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
4. Abdel-Rahman Hussein, Egypt to pass draft constitution despite protests, the Guardian, November 30, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
5. Jeffrey Fleishman, Egypt passes rushed draft of constitution amid popular anger, Los Angeles Times, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
6. Beleaguered Constituent Assembly votes on Egypt’s draft constitution, Ahram Online, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).…

22/11/2012 | New Constitutional Document | President Morsi Constitutional Declaration Egypt

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. The new constitutional text of the declaration issued by the Mursi – Editorial, Tahrir News.com, November 22, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
2. Ekram Ibrahim, Salafist support for Morsi limited to recent constitutional declaration, Ahram Online, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
3. Chibli Mallat, President Morsi: The Dubious Authority of a “Constitutional Declaration”, JURIST, November 29, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
4. English text of Morsi’s Constitutional Declaration, Ahram Online, November 22, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).
5. Egypt president stresses constitutional declaration is “temporary”, “necessary”, Ahram Online, November 30, 2012, Link (last visited Nov 30, 2012).…

10/10/2012 | Proposal | First Draft of the new Egyptian Constitution

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English – [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Constituent Assembly, دستور مصر : الصفحة الرئيسية‏ Egypt Constitution (2012), Link (last visited Oct 11, 2012).
2. Associated Press, Egypt releases draft of constitution for debate, October 10, 2012, Link (last visited Oct 11, 2012).
جمال عصام الدين, ننشر مسودة الدستور الجديد الأولى التى وضعتها ‘التأسيسية’ للطرح على الرأى العام – بوابة الأهرام 3, Al Ahram, October 10, 2012, Link (last visited Oct 11, 2012).
4. Abigail Hauslohner, Egypt releases partial draft of new constitution, The Washington Post, October 11, 2012, Link (last visited Oct 11, 2012).…

12/08/2012 | New Constitutional Document | President Morsi Constitutional Declaration Egypt

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Bassem Abo Alabass, Sherif Tarek & Ahram Online, Legal experts question legitimacy of Morsi’s constitutional changes, Ahram Online, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).
2. Randa Ali & Sara Mourad, Morsi’s Sunday surprise met with broad support by Egypt political forces, Ahram Online, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).
3. Egypt President Mursi explains army chief replacement, BBC News, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).
4. Egypt’s president asserts authority over army, Al Jazeera English, August 13, 2012, Link (last visited Aug 13, 2012).…

08/07/2012 | Related Legal Text | Presidential Decree 11/2012 reinstating formerly dissolved Parliament

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Sherif Tarek, President’s reinstatement of Egypt parliament met with praise, indignation, Ahram Online, July 8, 2012, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).
2. Ashri: President Morsi Reinstates Parliament, Siding with Popular Will and Rule of Law, IKHANWEB, July 8, 2012, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).
3. Egyptian President Mursi reverses parliament dissolution, BBC News, July 8, 2012, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).
4. Egypt’s Morsi orders parliament to reconvene, Al Jazeera English, July 9, 2012, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).…

18/06/2012 | Amendment | SCAF Amendment of Egyptian Constitutional Declaration

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Tamim Eylan, Egypt assembly tries to uphold constitution hopes, Reuters, June 18, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 19, 2012).
2. SCAF to amend Constitutional Declaration to gain legislative, financial powers, Egypt Independent, June 18, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012).
3. English text of SCAF amended Egypt Constitutional Declaration, June 18, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012).
4. Egypt’s military grants itself sweeping powers, BBC News, June 18, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012).
5. Jack Shenker, Egypt’s generals act to negate outcome of presidential poll, The Guardian, June 18, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012).…

14/06/2012 | Interpretation | Egypt SCC declaring Law 38 of 1972 on Parliament (amended 2011) unconstitutional, dissolving Parliament

Links to excerpts of the decision by the Supreme Constitutional Court in the following languages:

العربية

English – [translation provided by RN]

English – [Full judgement]

Secondary Materials:

1. Law No. 38 of 1972 on the People’s Assembly as amended 27/09/2011,  العربية , English, see also the entry on this law.
2. Chibli Mallat, Saving Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court from itself, Ahram Online, June 15, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).
3. Egypt dissolves its Parliament, The Boston Globe, June 15, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 15, 2012).
4. Egypt court says whole parliament unconstitutional, orders dissolution, Al Arabiya News, June 14, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 15, 2012).
5. Egypt supreme court calls for parliament to be dissolved, BBC News, May 14, 2012, Link (last visited Jun 15, 2012).…

27/09/2011 | Related Legal Text | Amendment of Law 38 of 1972 on the People’s Assembly and Law 120 of 1980 on the Shura Council [Decree Law 123/2011]

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. The People’s Assembly law – Laws and Processes, Ahram Online, December 4, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 24, 2012).…

20/07/2011 | Related Legal Text | Amendment of Law 38 of 1972 on the People’s Assembly [Decree Law 108/2011]

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Parliamentary Elections Law – Egypt’s Transition, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Link [العربية], Link [English],  (last visited Mar 24, 2012).…

30/03/2011 | New Constitutional Document | Constitutional Declaration of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Ahramonline, Egypt’s constitution: A controversial declaration (2011), Link.
2. RN Advisory Board Member Ayman Nour on the Constituent Assembly, Al Jazeera English, April 2, 2012. Video

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23/03/2011 | Related Legal Text | Amendment of Law 40 of 1977 on Political Parties [Decree 12/2011]

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Miriam Fam, Egypt Passes Parties Law, Sets Date for Parliament Elections, Bloomberg, March 28, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 5, 2012).
2. Mohammed Mahmoud, Amendments to Egypt political parties law open door to competition, Al-Shorfa.com, March 26, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 5, 2012).
3. Factbox: New law opens door to political parties in Egypt, Reuters, March 28, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 5, 2012).
4. Egypt’s new Political Party Law fails to please everyone, Egypt Independent, March 29, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 5, 2012).…

19/03/2011 | Amendment | Amendments adopted by 19 March referendum

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية - [RN comparative chart - old constitution, proposal by RN HLS study group and adopted amendments]

English – [RN comparative chart - old constitution, proposal by RN HLS study group and adopted amendments]

Secondary Materials:

1. Michele Dunne & Mara Revkin, Overview of Egypt’s Constitutional Referendum, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, March 16, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 3, 2012).
2. ElBaradei rejects proposed constitutional amendments, Egypt Independent, March 6, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 3, 2012).
3. Egyptian Constitutional Amendments HLS study- Comparative Chart, Right to Nonviolence Announcement, March 8, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 3, 2012).
4.إستفتاء.مصر – الاستفتاء, Website Referendum Amendment [Arabic], Link (last visited Jul 3, 2012).
5. ‫اللجنة القضائية العليا للإشراف علي استفتاء تعديل الدستور المصري‬, Referendum Facebook site, Link (last visited Jul 3, 2012).”…

13/02/2011 | New Constitutional Document | SCAF Constitutional Proclamation

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Egypt: Constitutional Proclamation, Scoop News, February 14, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).
2. Press Release: Egyptian Military Constitutional Proclamation, Link (last visited Jul 9, 2012).…

26/05/2007 | Amendment | Amendments relating to the Office of the President, budgetary Reforms, and the State Prosecutor

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Lisa Balydes & Safinaz El Tarouty, Women’s Electoral Participation in Egypt: The Implications of Gender for Voter Recruitment and Mobilization, 63 Middle East Journal 364-380 (2009).
2. BBC News, At a glance: Egypt’s constitution (2011), Link (last visited Jan 10, 2011).
3. Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron, The 2007 Constitutional Amendments in Egypt, and Their Implications on the Balance of Power, 22 Arab Law Quarterly 397-417, Link (2008).
4. Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron, Strong Presidentialism: The Model of Egypt, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
5. Nathan J. Brown, Michele Dunne & Amr Hamzawy, Egypts Controversial Constitutional Amendments (2007), Link (last visited Jan 12, 2012).
6. Hatem Elliesie, Rule of Law in Egypt, in Understanding the Rule of Law in various Legal Oders of the World (Matthias Koetter & Gunnar Folke Schuppert eds., 2010).
7. Tamir Moustafa, The Struggle for Constitutional Power: Law, Politics, and Economic Development in Egypt (2009).
8. UNDP, Egypt’s Constitutional Amendments and Procedures (2011), Link (last visited Jan 12, 2012).…

02/07/2005 | Related Legal Text | Amendment of Law 120 of 1980 on the Formation of the Shura Council [Law 176/2005]

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Tamir Moustafa, The struggle for constitutional power law, politics, and economic development in Egypt (2007), Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).
2. Jeannie Lynn Sowers, The journey to Tahrir : revolution, protest and social change in Egypt, 1999-2011 (2012).
3. EOHR issues its second report on the parliamentary elections Monitoring the submission of candidacy for the parliamentary elections ‘The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights’, Egypt Organization for Human Rights (EOHR), November 8, 2010, Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).…

02/06/2005 | Related Legal Text | Amendment of Law 38 of 1972 on the People’s Assembly [Law 175/2005]

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Tamir Moustafa, The struggle for constitutional power law, politics, and economic development in Egypt (2007), Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).
2. Jeannie Lynn Sowers, The journey to Tahrir : revolution, protest and social change in Egypt, 1999-2011 (2012).
3. EOHR issues its second report on the parliamentary elections Monitoring the submission of candidacy for the parliamentary elections ‘The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights’, Egypt Organization for Human Rights (EOHR), November 8, 2010, Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).…

25/05/2005 | Amendment | Article 76

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

English

Secondary Materials:

1. ArabNews.com, Egyptian judiciary rejects halting referendum on the constitution (2005), Link.
2. UNDP, Egypt’s Constitutional Amendments and Procedures (2011), Link.
3. Jeremy M. Sharp, Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections (2005), Link.…

05/07/2002 | Related Legal Text | Law 84 of 2002 (“NGO Law”)

Links to the amendment in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Mohamed Azouz, Justice Ministry requests information on civil society groups, Egypt Independent, January 3, 2012, Link (last visited Jul 6, 2012).
2. NGO law and regulation in Egypt, The International Programme of the Charity Commission, Link (last visited Jul 6, 2012).…

01/07/2000 | Related Legal Text | Amendment of Law 73 of 1956 on Exercizing of Political Rights

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Gamal Essam El-Din, A new page is turned, Al-Ahram Weekly, July 26, 2000, Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).
2. Tamir Moustafa, The struggle for constitutional power law, politics, and economic development in Egypt (2007).
3. EOHR appeals for genuine guarantees for general elections, is concerned about government’s control over media, Egypt Organization for Human Rights (EOHR), March 23, 2000, Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).
4. Human Rights Watch World Report 2001 – Egypt, (2000), Link (last visited Jun 16, 2012).…

18/05/1996 | Interpretation | Supreme Constitutional Court Case No. 8 of Judicial Year 17 (“Niqab” decision)

Links to the amendment in the following languages

العربية - [Support the project - submit available references]

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Nathan J. Brown & Lombardi, Clark B., The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt on Islamic Law, Veiling and Civil Rights: An Annotated Translation of Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Case No. 8 of Judicial Year 17 (May 18, 1996), 21 American University International Law Review 437–460 (2005), Link.
2. Clark B. Lombardi, Islamic Law as a Source of Constitutional Law in Egypt: The Constitutionalization of the Sharia in a Modern Arab State, 37 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 81.
3. Kirsten Stilt, Islamic Law and the Remaking of the Iraqi Legal System, 36 George Washington International Law Review 395 (2004).…

22/05/1980 | Amendment | Amendments to Presidential election laws, Islamic law clause, and socialist objectives

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English

Secondary Materials:

1. Nathan J. Brown & Clark B. Lombardi, Translation – The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt on Islamic Law, Veiling and Civil Rights: An Annotated Translation of Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Case No. 8 of Judicial Year 17 (May 18, 1996), 21 American University International Law Review 437-460 (2005).
2. Adel Omar Sherif, The Relation between Constitution and Shari’ah in Egypt, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).
3. UNDP, Egypt’s Constitutional Amendments and Procedures (2011), Link (last visited Jan 12, 2012).…

06/09/1971 | New Constitutional Document | 1971 Constitution of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [Support the project - submit available references]

English – [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Hatem Elliesie, Rule of Law in Egypt, in Understanding the Rule of Law in Various Legal Orders of the World (Matthias Koetter & Gunnar Folke Schuppert eds., 2010).
2. Nathalie Bernard-Maugiron, Strong Presidentialism: The Model of Egypt, in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Grote, Rainer & Röder, Tilmann J. eds., 2011).…

20/08/1971 | Proposal | 1971 Draft constitution of the United Arab Republic

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 (Arabic).
2. Attempts at Arab Unity and Projects, Center for Opinion Studies, July, 2008, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012) (Arabic)…

23/03/1964 | New Constitutional Document | 1964 United Arab Republic Constitution

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 Link (Arabic).…

27/09/1958 | Related Legal Text | Law No. 162 of 1958 (“Emergency Law”)

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Issandr El-Amrani, The Emergency Law needs to go, The Arabist, September 15, 2011, Link (last visited Jul 6, 2012).
2. Egypt: Repeal Emergency Law, Abolish Emergency State Security Court, Human Rights Watch, August 3, 2003, Link (last visited Jul 6, 2012).
3. Hotline: Egypt’s extension of emergency law means continued rights violations, Jurist, May 28, 2008, Link (last visited Jul 6, 2012).…

05/03/1958 | New Constitutional Document | 1958 United Arab Republic Interim Constitution

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 Link (Arabic).…

23/06/1956 | New Constitutional Document | 1956 Constitution of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt Constitutional history at a glance, March 9, 2005, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).
2. Nathan J. Brown, Egypt’s Constitutional Ghosts, Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).…

16/10/1951 | Amendment | Amendment to reintroduced 1923 Constitution of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 (Arabic).
2. Attempts at Arab Unity and Projects, Center for Opinion Studies, July, 2008, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012) (Arabic).…

30/11/1934 | New Constitutional Document | Reintroduction of 1923 Constitution of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Union agreement, (tripartite: Egypt, Syria and Iraq), Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 570-583 (Arabic).
2. Attempts at Arab Unity and Projects, Center for Opinion Studies, July, 2008, Link (last visited Jun 18, 2012) (Arabic).…

22/10/1930 | New Constitutional Document | 1930 Constitution of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. Al-Ahram Weekly, Egypt Constitutional history at a glance, March 9, 2005, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).
2. Nathan J. Brown, Egypt’s Constitutional Ghosts, Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).…

19/04/1923 | New Constitutional Document | 1923 Constitution of Egypt

Links to the text in the following languages:

العربية – [kindly provided by Jordan Toone]

English - [Support the project - submit available references]

Secondary Materials:

1. The Establishment of the Shura Council Representatives and the Election of its Members 1866, Youssef Kazama Khoury, Constitutions in the Arab world (Provisions and amendments) 1839-1987 (1989), 523-538 Link (Arabic).
2. Nathan J. Brown, Egypt’s Constitutional Ghosts, Foreign Affairs, February 15, 2011, Link (last visited Mar 16, 2012).…

 

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